GMP stands for Good Manufacturing Practice. It is a production and testing practice put in place to ensure quality products. In the U.S. GMP standards are enforced by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Here is an example of these practices as they pertain to raw materials and production:
Raw Materials. Check whether:
a. Raw materials and primary packaging materials are stored and handled in a manner which prevents their mix-up, contamination with microorganisms or other chemicals, or decomposition from exposure to excessive heat, cold, sunlight or moisture.
b. Containers of materials are closed, and bagged or boxed materials are stored off the floor.
c. Containers of materials are labeled with respect to identity, lot identification and control status.
d. Materials are sampled and tested or examined in conformance with procedures assuring the absence of contamination with filth, microorganisms or other extraneous substances to the extent necessary to prevent adulteration of finished products. Pay particular attention to materials of animal or vegetable origin and those used in the manufacture of cosmetics by cold processing methods with respect to contamination with filth or microorganisms.
e. Materials not meeting acceptance specifications are properly identified and controlled to prevent their use in cosmetics.
Production. Check whether manufacturing and control have been established and written instructions, i.e., formulations, processing, transfer and filling instructions, in-process control methods etc., are being maintained. Determine whether such procedures require that:
f. The equipment for processing, transfer and filling the utensils, and the containers for holding raw and bulk materials are clean, in good repair and in sanitary condition.
g. Only approved materials are used.
h. Samples are taken, as appropriate, during and/or after processing, transfer or filling for testing for adequacy of mixing or other forms of processing, absence of hazardous microorganisms or chemical contaminants, and compliance with any other acceptance specification.
i. Weighing and measuring of raw materials is checked by a second person, and containers holding the materials are properly identified.
j. Major equipment, transfer lines, containers and tanks are used for processing, filling or holding cosmetics are identified to indicate contents, batch designation, control status and other pertinent information.
k. Labels are examined for identity before labeling operations to avoid mix-up.
l. The equipment for processing, holding, transferring and filling of batch is labeled regarding identity, batch identification and control status.
m. Packages of finished products bear permanent code marks.